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View all PreK-12 NYS Learning Standards in a dropdown list format.
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  • Standard Area - TECH: Learning Standards for Technology
    (see MST standards under Previous Standard Versions)
            • Introduction - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.Introduction:

              Living things are similar in that they rely on many of the same processes to stay alive, yet are different in the ways that these processes are carried out.

              Nonliving things lack certain features of living organisms, such as the ability to maintain a cellular organization, carry out metabolic processes while maintaining internal stability (homeostasis), and pass on hereditary information through reproduction.

              In most biological respects, humans are like other living organisms. For instance, they are made up of cells like those of other animals, have much the same chemical composition, have organ systems and physical characteristics like many others, reproduce in a similar way, carry the same kind of genetic information system, and are part of a food web.

              The components of living systems, from a single cell to an ecosystem, interact to maintain balance. Different organisms have different regulatory mechanisms that function to maintain the level of organization necessary for life. Diversity is evident and important at all levels of organization; from a single cell to a multicellular organism to an ecosystem.

              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.1a:
                Populations can be categorized by the function they serve. Food webs identify the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers carrying out either autotropic or heterotropic nutrition.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.1b:
                An ecosystem is shaped by the nonliving environment as well as its interacting species. The world contains a wide diversity of physical conditions, which creates a variety of environments.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.1c:
                In all environments, organisms compete for vital resources. The linked and changing interactions of populations and the environment compose the total ecosystem.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.1d:
                The interdependence of organisms in an established ecosystem often results in approximate stability over hundreds and thousands of years. For example, as one population increases, it is held in check by one or more environmental factors or another species.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.1e:
                Ecosystems, like many other complex systems, tend to show cyclic changes around a state of approximate equilibrium.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.1f:
                Every population is linked, directly or indirectly, with many others in an ecosystem. Disruptions in the numbers and types of species and environmental changes can upset ecosystem stability.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2a:
                Important levels of organization for structure and function include organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2b:
                Humans are complex organisms. They require multiple systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, coordination, and immunity. The systems interact to perform the life functions.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2c:
                The components of the human body, from organ systems to cell organelles, interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. To successfully accomplish this, organisms possess a diversity of control mechanisms that detect deviations and make corrective actions.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2d:
                If there is a disruption in any human system, there may be a corresponding imbalance in homeostasis.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2e:
                The organs and systems of the body help to provide all the cells with their basic needs. The cells of the body are of different kinds and are grouped in ways that enhance how they function together.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2f:
                Cells have particular structures that perform specific jobs. These structures perform the actual work of the cell. Just as systems are coordinated and work together, cell parts must also be coordinated and work together.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2g:
                Each cell is covered by a membrane that performs a number of important functions for the cell. These include: separation from its outside environment, controlling which molecules enter and leave the cell, and recognition of chemical signals. The processes of diffusion and active transport are important in the movement of materials in and out of cells.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2h:
                Many organic and inorganic substances dissolved in cells allow necessary chemical reactions to take place in order to maintain life. Large organic food molecules such as proteins and starches must initially be broken down (digested to amino acids and simple sugars respectively), in order to enter cells. Once nutrients enter a cell, the cell will use them as building blocks in the synthesis of compounds necessary for life.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2i:
                Inside the cell a variety of specialized structures, formed from many different molecules, carry out the transport of materials (cytoplasm), extraction of energy from nutrients (mitochondria), protein building (ribosomes), waste disposal (cell membrane), storage (vacuole), and information storage (nucleus).
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.2j:
                Receptor molecules play an important role in the interactions between cells. Two primary agents of cellular communication are hormones and chemicals produced by nerve cells. If nerve or hormone signals are blocked, cellular communication is disrupted and the organism's stability is affected.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.1.3a:
                The structures present in some single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to the tissues and systems found in multicellular organisms, thus enabling them to perform all of the life processes needed to maintain homeostasis.
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