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View all PreK-12 NYS Learning Standards in a dropdown list format.
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  • Standard Area - TECH: Learning Standards for Technology
    (see MST standards under Previous Standard Versions)
            • Introduction - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.Introduction:

              The fundamental concept of ecology is that living organisms interact with and are dependent on their environment and each other. These interactions result in a flow of energy and a cycling of materials that are essential for life.

              Competition can occur between members of different species for an ecological niche. Competition can also occur within species. Competition may be for abiotic resources, such as space, water, air, and shelter, and for biotic resources such as food and mates. Students should be familiar with the concept of food chains and webs.

              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.1a:
                Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, typically from the Sun, through photosynthetic organisms including green plants and algae, to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.1b:
                The atoms and molecules on the Earth cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere. For example, carbon dioxide and water molecules used in photosynthesis to form energy-rich organic compounds are returned to the environment when the energy in these compounds is eventually released by cells. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going. This concept may be illustrated with an energy pyramid.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.1c:
                The chemical elements, such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in a food web, some energy is stored in newly made structures but much is dissipated into the environment as heat.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.1d:
                The number of organisms any habitat can support (carrying capacity) is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organisms through the activities of bacteria and fungi.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.1e:
                In any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions including light intensity, temperature range, mineral availability, soil/rock type, and relative acidity (pH).
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.1f:
                Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of unlimited size, but environments and resources are finite. This has profound effects on the interactions among organisms.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.1g:
                Relationships between organisms may be negative, neutral, or positive. Some organisms may interact with one another in several ways. They may be in a producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationship; or one organism may cause disease in, scavenge, or decompose another.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.2a:
                As a result of evolutionary processes, there is a diversity of organisms and roles in ecosystems. This diversity of species increases the chance that at least some will survive in the face of large environmental changes. Biodiversity increases the stability of the ecosystem.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.2b:
                Biodiversity also ensures the availability of a rich variety of genetic material that may lead to future agricultural or medical discoveries with significant value to humankind. As diversity is lost, potential sources of these materials may be lost with it.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.3a:
                The interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms affect the development of stable ecosystems.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.3b:
                Through ecological succession, all ecosystems progress through a sequence of changes during which one ecological community modifies the environment, making it more suitable for another community. These long-term gradual changes result in the community reaching a point of stability that can last for hundreds or thousands of years.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.6.3c:
                A stable ecosystem can be altered, either rapidly or slowly, through the activities of organisms (including humans), or through climatic changes or natural disasters. The altered ecosystem can usually recover through gradual changes back to a point of long- term stability.
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