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View all PreK-12 NYS Learning Standards in a dropdown list format.
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  • Standard Area - TECH: Learning Standards for Technology
    (see MST standards under Previous Standard Versions)
            • Introduction - MST4.I.PS2.Introduction:
              Students should develop an understanding of Earth as a set of closely coupled systems. The concept of systems provides a framework in which students can investigate three major interacting components: lithosphere, hydro- sphere, and atmosphere. Processes act within and among the three components on a wide range of time scales to bring about continuous change in Earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2a:
                The interior of Earth is hot. Heat flow and movement of material within Earth cause sections of Earth's crust to move. This may result in earthquakes, volcanic eruption, and the creation of mountains and ocean basins.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2b:
                Analysis of earthquake wave data (vibrational disturbances) leads to the conclusion that there are layers within Earth. These layers - the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core - have distinct properties.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2c:
                Folded, tilted, faulted, and displaced rock layers suggest past crustal movement.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2d:
                Continents fitting together like puzzle parts and fossil correlations provided initial evidence that continents were once together.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2e:
                The Theory of Plate Tectonics explains how the "solid" lithosphere consists of a series of plates that "float" on the partially molten section of the mantle. Convection cells within the mantle may be the driving force for the movement of the plates.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2f:
                Plates may collide, move apart, or slide past one another. Most volcanic activity and mountain building occur at the boundaries of these plates, often resulting in earthquakes.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2g:
                Rocks are classified according to their method of formation. The three classes of rocks are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Most rocks show characteristics that give clues to their formation conditions.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2h:
                The rock cycle model shows how types of rock or rock material may be transformed from one type of rock to another.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2i:
                Weather describes the conditions of the atmosphere at a given location for a short period of time.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2j:
                Climate is the characteristic weather that prevails from season to season and year to year.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2k:
                The uneven heating of Earth's surface is the cause of weather.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2l:
                Air masses form when air remains nearly stationary over a large section of Earth's surface and takes on the conditions of temperature and humidity from that location. Weather conditions at a location are determined primarily by temperature, humidity, and pressure of air masses over that location.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2m:
                Most local weather condition changes are caused by movement of air masses.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2n:
                The movement of air masses is determined by prevailing winds and upper air currents.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2o:
                Fronts are boundaries between air masses. Precipitation is likely to occur at these boundaries.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2p:
                High-pressure systems generally bring fair weather. Low-pressure systems usually bring cloudy, unstable conditions. The general movement of highs and lows is from west to east across the United States.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2q:
                Hazardous weather conditions include thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, ice storms, and blizzards. Humans can prepare for and respond to these conditions if given sufficient warning.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.I.PS2.2r:
                Substances enter the atmosphere naturally and from human activity. Some of these substances include dust from volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These substances can affect weather, climate, and living things.
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