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View all PreK-12 NYS Learning Standards in a dropdown list format.
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  • Standard Area - TECH: Learning Standards for Technology
    (see MST standards under Previous Standard Versions)
            • Introduction - MST4.C.LE.LE.5.Introduction:
              Life is dependent upon availability of an energy source and raw materials that are used in the basic enzyme-controlled biochemical processes of living organisms. These biochemical processes occur within a narrow range of conditions. Because organisms are continually exposed to changes in their external and internal environments, they must continually monitor and respond to these changes. Responses to change can range in complexity from simple activation of a cell chemical process to elaborate learned behavior. The result of these responses is called homeostasis, a "dynamic equilibrium" or "steady state" which keeps the internal environment within certain limits. Organisms have a diversity of homeostatic feedback mechanisms that detect deviations from the normal state and take corrective actions to return their systems to the normal range. These mechanisms maintain the physical and chemical aspects of the internal environment within narrow limits that are favorable for cell activities. Failure of these control mechanisms can result in disease or even death.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.5.1a:
                The energy for life comes primarily from the Sun. Photosynthesis provides a vital connection between the Sun and the energy needs of living systems.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.5.1b:
                Plant cells and some one-celled organisms contain chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis uses solar energy to combine the inorganic molecules carbon dioxide and water into energy-rich organic compounds (e.g., glucose) and release oxygen to the environment.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.5.1c:
                In all organisms, organic compounds can be used to assemble other molecules such as proteins, DNA, starch, and fats. The chemical energy stored in bonds can be used as a source of energy for life processes.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.5.1d:
                In all organisms, the energy stored in organic molecules may be released during cellular respiration. This energy is temporarily stored in ATP molecules. In many organisms, the process of cellular respiration is concluded in mitochondria, in which ATP is produced more efficiently, oxygen is used, and carbon dioxide and water are released as wastes.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.5.1e:
                The energy from ATP is used by the organism to obtain, transform, and transport materials, and to eliminate wastes.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.5.1f:
                Biochemical processes, both breakdown and synthesis, are made possible by a large set of biological catalysts called enzymes. Enzymes can affect the rates of chemical change. The rate at which enzymes work can be influenced by internal environmental factors such as pH and temperature.
              • Major Understandings - MST4.C.LE.LE.5.1g:
                Enzymes and other molecules, such as hormones, receptor molecules, and antibodies, have specific shapes that influence both how they function and how they interact with other molecules.
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