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The universe is made up of many different objects. Students should observe and describe the motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars. The movement of these objects through space can be traced and measured over various time segments.

By keeping daily records, students will learn to identify sequences of changes and look for patterns; this skill will be useful throughout their study of the natural world. Younger students should draw what they see. Older students should be encouraged to keep journals and use instruments to measure and record their observations.

Note: Students at this age are concrete thinkers; therefore, only the effects of gravity they can directly observe should be discussed. Drawing models that show size and position and discussing phenomena based on gravity are too abstract and may lead to misconceptions.

Note: The use of e.g. denotes examples which may be used for in-depth study. The terms for example and such as denote material which is testable. Items in parentheses denote further definition of the word(s) preceding the item and are testable.

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