Last updated: 6/15/2015

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TCSD Pacing Guide February -June 7th Grade

English 7th Grade

Literacy Learning



Working Conditions

Module 2: Unit 1 20 lessons (4 weeks)

 Students explore the issue of working conditions, historical and modern day.  They analyze how people, settings, and events interact in literary and informational texts.  Students first focus on Lyddie (about a girl who works in the Lowell mills); they write an argument essay about Lyddie's choices around joining a protest over working conditions.  Then they read a speech by Cesar Chavez (tracing how the sections of the text combine to build central claims) as they consider the role that workde3rs, the government, and consumers play in improving working conditions.  Finally, a short research project explores how businesses can affect working conditions.  As a final performance task students create a guide to working conditions in the garment industry.

Launching independet reading

Unit 2: Introducing agents of change for working conditions; Analyzing the development of claims in the Commonwealth Club Address.


Analyzing the structure of the Commonwealth Club Address

Introduction to researching modern working conditions

Research: working conditions in modern garment industry

Crafting consumer's guide


Reading Literary Nonfiction: CCSS: RI.7.1, RI.7.2, RI.7.3, RI.7.4, RI. 7.5, Ri. 7.6, RI. 7.8, RI.7.9, RI. 7.10, SL. 7.1, L. 7.5, RH.6-8.1, RH. 6-8.6, RH.6-8.10


Focus Skills: Cite Text Evidence

Inference ans Support Details

Main Idea and Supporting Details


Interactions Between Individuals

Interactions of Ideas in Text

Word Choice

Connotation and Denotation

Context Clues

Figurative vs. Literal Language

Analyze Text Structure

Author's Point of View

Persuasive Technique

Evaluate Evidence

Compare and Contrast Texts

Engage in Collaborative Discussion

Review Skills:

Draw Conclusions

Author's Purpose

Author's Tone

Reading Selections:

  • excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave/Reconstruction
  • Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: Address to Parliament on May 13, 1940/ World War II: British Home Front
  • excerpt from Awful Rail to Awesome Trail: A Community Proposal

Share with students a photograph of Abraham Lincoln at the Lincoln Memorial.  Discuss how Lincoln's support of the abolition of slavery helped change the lives of formerly enslaved African Americans. 


Essential Question: How can primary and secondary sources complement one another in helping us understand history?

Excerpt from Narrtive of the Life of Frederic Douglass, an American Slave/Reconstruction


Teaching Core Knowledge classic novels can be a challenge.  Students will learn how to use comprehension skills while reading The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. This unit will provide students with the opportunity to develop a love of literacy through the novel.


This unit explores The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. Students will employ close reading and annotation strategies to analyze different kinds of truth revealed in this work of fiction, including truth or fact in fiction, such as comparisons between Twain’s life and the characters, settings and events in his fiction. Other kinds of truth to be explored include: the truths and lies that characters convey and their consequences; the truth found in ordinary life; truths of human nature; and cultural truths, such as the prejudices of the mid-nineteenth century. In the final curriculum embedded performance assessment (CEPA), students will write and present a paper on one kind of truth portrayed in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, using evidence to support their argument(s) and conclusion(s) at a student conference on the writing of Mark Twain.



Brief Overview: Introduction to Mark Twain and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer: In addition to the introductions of the author and the book, Lessons focus on finding the facts from Mark Twain’s/Samuel Clemens’s life, the era he lived in and the broader culture of America in the nineteenth century, in his fiction. The reading and interpreting of dialect are also a focus.


Prior Knowledge Required: Previous practice with comprehension strategies (e.g. monitoring understanding, rereading, and chunking complex sentences into component parts).




Consumer's Guide to Working Conditions in the Garment Industry brochure (W.7.2a)b,d,f,W.7.4,W.7.6,W.7.7, W.7.8,L7.3, and L7.6)

Evidence Based Claims

Graphic Narrative:

Common Core State Standards: SL.7.1, SL.7.2, SL. 7.5

Students will transform part of a literary narrative into a graphic narrative.

21st Century Student Outcomes:

  • Use a wide range of idea-creation techniques
  • Create new and worthwhile ideas
  • Elaborate on, refine, analyze, and evaluate their own ideas in order to improve and maximize creative efforts.
  • Develop, implement, and communicate new ideas to others effectively
  • Present thoughts and ideas effectively, using oral, written and non verbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts.
  • Exercise flexibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal.
  • Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work and value the individual contributions made by each team member.

Produce a variety of types of writing including:

  • reports,
  • summaries,
  • letters and descriptions,
  • research essays that explain a process,
  • stories and poems - with a coherent structure of story line. 

Structures for Discussions and Writing

  • Carousel Brainstorm Protocol (Expeditionary Learning, see After reminding students of the basic process/requirements of brainstorming, divide the class into manageable groups, or as many groups as there are questions. Give each group a question or give each its own question on chart paper and a different colored marker. Students then brainstorm their responses (and questions or other points). After a couple of minutes or when all or most of the groups seem to have completed their brainstorming, students should move on to deciding which of the responses they think are the most important or compelling (marked with stars or highlighted). (If there are several questions, each group moves on to the next question in a clockwise direction and repeat the process with the new question, adding ideas, highlighting or starring their ideas of the most important ideas. During this time, they should also decide who will report for the group. If there is one question, each team reports on the points they highlighted.
  • The Socratic Seminar Protocol is used in some instances in these lessons and could be used more throughout the unit at the teacher’s discretion. This is a technique for productive discussions, observations and feedback on peers’ discussions. A description and ideas about using this technique are outlined by Expeditionary Learning ( This method also lends itself to modification for ELLs and students with disabilities.


Expository writing vocabulary

Dialect, Terminology and Vocabulary

  • The period language and dialects in the book will be challenging as will be some of the behavior of children and adults in the Missouri of the nineteenth century. Students will need some background on the time period, including differences class and race, which influenced the language used in the narrative and dialogue. Listening to the audio version of at least the first chapter would be helpful for most students.
  • Students will need to be warned and coached in advance on terms used for black Americans and American Indians. Consider agreeing on some class norms about language. For example, it is okay to read the words that we wouldn’t use today, but we’re not going to use them in discussions, etc., or there could be a pre-reading discussion about “best practices” when you read about prejudice from a different time period.
  • In addition to the dialect, there is a lot of vocabulary that will likely be new to many students.  Although some specific vocabulary is mentioned in some lessons, teachers may review the chapters before the reading for each lesson and choose some of the vocabulary to highlight, asking students for their knowledge or opinions about the meaning. Focus on the most important vocabulary (and in some cases, spellings) for understanding the text.
  • Close reading: The following excerpt is about close reading (from PARCC, 2011, page 7). Reword this for an explanation to students.

“Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a text of sufficient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and reread deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supporting details. It also enables students to reflect on the meanings of individual words and sentences; the order in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole.”

canvass consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning He canvassed his system.



respectful deference

He gathered quite a following of lads interested in the exhibition; and one that had cut his finger and had been a centre of fascination and homage up to this time, now found himself suddenly without an adherent, and shorn of his glory.

pariah a person who is rejected (from society or home)

Shortly Tom came upon the juvenile pariah of the village, Huckleberry Finn, son of the town drunkard.

reckon deem to be

Least I reckon so."

lull make calm or still

The master, throned on high in his great splint-bottom arm-chair, was dozing, lulled by the drowsy hum of study.

vacant without an occupant or incumbent

Tom was about to take refuge in a lie, when he saw two long tails of yellow hair hanging down a back that he recognized by the electric sympathy of love; and by that form was the only vacant place on the girls' side of the school-house.


foolhardy marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences

The pupils wondered if this foolhardy boy had lost his mind.


astounding so surprisingly impressive as to stun or overwhelm

"Thomas Sawyer, this is the most astounding confession I have ever listened to.


made to seem smaller or less (especially in worth)

The master's arm performed until it was tired and the stock of switches notably diminished.


animosity a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility

She thrust it away again, but with less animosity.


clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment

For a time the girl refused to notice; but her human curiosity presently began to manifest itself by hardly perceptible signs.


full of high-spirited delight

But although Tom's ear tingled, his heart was jubilant.

abide dwell

At last luck seemed to settle and abide with Joe.

upbraid express criticism towards

So she sat down to cry again and upbraid herself; and by this time the scholars began to gather again, and she had to hide her griefs and still her broken heart and take up the cross of a long, dreary, aching afternoon, with none among the strangers about her to exchange sorrows with.

prevailing most frequent or common

He crossed a small "branch" two or three times, because of a prevailing juvenile superstition that to cross water baffled pursuit.

zephyra slight wind (usually refreshing)

There was not even a zephyr stirring; the dead noonday heat had even stilled the songs of the birds; nature lay in a trance that was broken by no sound but the occasional far-off hammering of a wood-pecker, and this seemed to render the pervading silence and sense of loneliness the more profound.

pervadespread or diffuse through

There was not even a zephyr stirring; the dead noonday heat had even stilled the songs of the birds; nature lay in a trance that was broken by no sound but the occasional far-off hammering of a wood-pecker, and this seemed to render the pervading silence and sense of loneliness the more profound.

meditate reflect deeply on a subject

He sat long with his elbows on his knees and his chin in his hands, meditating.

compress squeeze or press together

But the elastic heart of youth cannot be compressed into one constrained shape long at a time.

utter express audibly; utter sounds (not necessarily words)

He put his hand there and uttered this incantation impressively:



incapable of failure or error

The truth was, that a superstition of his had failed, here, which he and all his comrades had always looked upon as infallible.

futility uselessness as a consequence of having no practical result

He well knew the futility of trying to contend against witches, so he gave up discouraged.


emphasize to stress, single out as important

By and by, out of the stillness, little, scarcely preceptible noises began to emphasize themselves.

ingenuity the power of creative imagination

And now the tiresome chirping of a cricket that no human ingenuity could locate, began.


budge move very slightly

Don't you stir nor budge.

fatal bringing death

After which he put the fatal knife in Potter's open right hand, and sat down on the dismantled coffin.

stolid having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited

And the poor creature dropped on his knees before the stolid murderer, and clasped his appealing hands

constitute form or compose 

She went to the open door and stood in it and looked out among the tomato vines and "jimpson" weeds that constituted the garden.


motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person's thoughts and actions

Every time I let him off, my conscience does hurt me so, and every time I hit him my old heart most breaks.


shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception

While Tom was eating his supper, and stealing sugar as opportunity offered, Aunt Polly asked him questions that were full of guile, and very deep -- for she wanted to trap him into damaging revealments.


circumstantial fully detailed and specific about particulars

Aunt Polly was vexed to think she had overlooked that bit of circumstantial evidence, and missed a trick.


sagacity the mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations

She was half sorry her sagacity had miscarried, and half glad that Tom had stumbled into obedient conduct for once.


natty marked by up-to-dateness in dress and manners

His cap was a dainty thing, his close-buttoned blue cloth roundabout was new and natty, and so were his pantaloons.


glower look angry or sullen, wrinkle one's forehead, as if to signal disapproval

So they stood, each with a foot placed at an angle as a brace, and both shoving with might and main, and glowering at each other with hate.

melancholy a constitutional tendency to be gloomy and depressed

He surveyed the fence, and all gladness left him and a deep melancholy settled down upon his spirit.


worldly characteristic of or devoted to the temporal world as opposed to the spiritual world

He got out his worldly wealth and examined it -- bits of toys, marbles, and trash; enough to buy an exchange of work, maybe, but not half enough to buy so much as half an hour of pure freedom.

execute put in effect

He was boat and captain and engine-bells combined, so he had to imagine himself standing on his own hurricane-deck giving the orders and executing them:

alacrity liveliness and eagerness

Tom gave up the brush with reluctance in his face, but alacrity in his heart.


idle not in action or at work

He had had a nice, good, idle time all the while -- plenty of company -- and the fence had three coats of whitewash on it!

privilege a special advantage or immunity or benefit not enjoyed by all

The boys were all eaten up with envy -- but those that suffered the bitterest pangs were those who perceived too late that they themselves had contributed to this hated splendor by trading tickets to Tom for the wealth he had amassed in selling whitewashing privileges.

wend direct one's course or way

The boy mused awhile over the substantial change which had taken place in his worldly circumstances, and then wended toward headquarters to report.


condescend behave in a patronizing and condescending manner

These two great commanders did not condescend to fight in person -- that being better suited to the still smaller fry -- but sat together on an eminence and conducted the field operations by orders delivered through aides-de-camp.


evanescent tending to vanish like vapor

He had thought he loved her to distraction; he had regarded his passion as adoration; and behold it was only a poor little evanescent partiality.


furtive secret and sly or sordid

He worshipped this new angel with furtive eye, till he saw that she had discovered him; then he pretended he did not know she was present, and began to "show off" in all sorts of absurd boyish ways, in order to win her admiration.


reproach express criticism towards

Then her conscience reproached her, and she yearned to say something kind and loving; but she judged that this would be construed into a confession that she had been in the wrong, and discipline forbade that.


beseech ask for or request earnestly

He pictured himself lying sick unto death and his aunt bending over him beseeching one little forgiving word, but he would turn his face to the wall, and die with that word unsaid.


discordant not in agreement or harmony

The window went up, a maid-servant's discordant voice profaned the holy calm, and a deluge of water drenched the prone martyr's remains!


omission neglecting to do something; leaving out or passing over something

Tom turned in without the added vexation of prayers, and Sid made mental note of the omission.


inconceivable totally unlikely

True, the knife would not cut anything, but it was a "sure-enough" Barlow, and there was inconceivable grandeur in that -- though where the Western boys ever got the idea that such a weapon could possibly be counterfeited to its injury is an imposing mystery and will always remain so, perhaps.


emerge come out into view, as from concealment

But when he emerged from the towel, he was not yet satisfactory, for the clean territory stopped short at his chin and his jaws, like a mask; below and beyond this line there was a dark expanse of unirrigated soil that spread downward in front and backward around his neck.


effeminate having unsuitable feminine qualities

[He privately smoothed out the curls, with labor and difficulty, and plastered his hair close down to his head; for he held curls to be effeminate, and his own filled his life with bitterness.]


gall irritate or vex

He was fully as uncomfortable as he looked; for there was a restraint about whole clothes and cleanliness that galled him.

abstainchoose not to consume

He promised to abstain from smoking, chewing, and profanity as long as he remained a member.


concern a feeling of sympathy for someone or something

During three days Tom was deeply concerned about the Judge's condition and hungry for news of it.

envy a feeling of grudging admiration and desire to have something that is possessed by another

The Cadets paraded in a style calculated to kill the late member with envy.

hubbub loud confused noise from many sources

He covered his head with the bedclothes and waited in a horror of suspense for his doom; for he had not the shadow of a doubt that all this hubbub was about him.

absorb consume all of one's attention or time

It became the absorbing topic of village talk immediately.

persuade cause somebody to adopt a certain position, belief, or course of action; twist somebody's arm

Every reference to the murder sent a shudder to his heart, for his troubled conscience and fears almost persuaded him that these remarks were put forth in his hearing as "feelers"; he did not see how he could be suspected of knowing anything about the murder, but still he could not be comfortable in the midst of this gossip.

discreet marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint

Moreover, he wanted to assure himself that Huck had remained discreet.

saunter walk leisurely and with no apparent aim

Tom kept his ears open when idlers sauntered out of the court-room, but invariably heard distressing news -- the toils were closing more and more relentlessly around poor Potter.

testify give testimony in a court of law

Now a witness was called who testified that he found Muff Potter washing in the brook, at an early hour of the morning that the murder was discovered, and that he immediately sneaked away.

reproof an act or expression of criticism and censure

The perplexity and dissatisfaction of the house expressed itself in murmurs and provoked a reproof from the bench.

reign have sovereign power

A groan escaped from poor Potter, and he put his face in his hands and rocked his body softly to and fro, while a painful silence reigned in the court-room.

perceptible easily seen or detected

Injun Joe gave a barely perceptible start.

immortal not subject to death

His name even went into immortal print, for the village paper magnified him.

formidable extremely impressive in strength or excellence

Since Tom's harassed conscience had managed to drive him to the lawyer's house by night and wring a dread tale from lips that had been sealed with the dismalest and most formidable of oaths, Huck's confidence in the human race was well-nigh obliterated.


lacking in security or safety

But you can't hang a "clew" for murder, and so after that detective had got through and gone home, Tom felt just as insecure as he was before.

yonder distant but within sight (`yon' is dialectal)

"I reckon maybe we'll tackle the old tree that's over yonder on Cardiff Hill back of the widow's."

lurk lie in wait, lie in ambush, behave in a sneaky and secretive manner

Spirits whispered in the rustling leaves, ghosts lurked in the murky nooks, the deep baying of a hound floated up out of the distance, an owl answered with his sepulchral note.

fulfill fill or meet a want or need

The thing failed this time, however, so the boys shouldered their tools and went away feeling that they had not trifled with fortune, but had fulfilled all the requirements that belong to the business of treasure-hunting.

unkempt not properly maintained or cared for

"T'other" was a ragged, unkempt creature, with nothing very pleasant in his face.

auspices kindly endorsement and guidance

Here was treasurehunting under the happiest auspices -- there would not be any bothersome uncertainty as to where to dig.

unearth recover through digging

The box was soon unearthed.

misfortune an unfortunate state resulting from unfavorable outcomes

He would have hidden the silver with the gold to wait there till his "revenge" was satisfied, and then he would have had the misfortune to find that money turn up missing.

palpable capable of being perceived; especially capable of being handled or touched or felt

Company would be a palpable improvement, he thought.

resemble appear like; be similar or bear a likeness to

Nobody entered the alley or left it; nobody resembling the Spaniard entered or left the tavern door.

tote carry with difficulty

I tote water for Uncle Jake whenever he wants me to, and any time I ask him he gives me a little something to eat if he can spare it.

laden filled with a great quantity

The old steam ferry-boat was chartered for the occasion; presently the gay throng filed up the main street laden with provision-baskets.

labyrinth complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

Dougal's cave was but a vast labyrinth of crooked aisles that ran into each other and out again and led nowhere.

ominous threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments

The hooting of an owl came over the hill -- ominous sound!

lag hang (back) or fall (behind) in movement, progress, development, etc.

There was a lagging, anxious silence, and then all of a sudden there was an explosion of firearms and a cry.

blunder an embarrassing mistake

He made several efforts to creep out of his scrape, but the old man's eye was upon him and he made blunder after blunder.

embellishment the act of adding extraneous decorations to something

When you talked about notching ears and slitting noses I judged that that was your own embellishment, because white men don't take that sort of revenge.

beholden under a moral obligation to someone

There's another that you're more beholden to than you are to me and my boys, maybe, but he don't allow me to tell his name.

countenance the appearance conveyed by a person's face

Whispers passed along, and a boding uneasiness took possession of every countenance.

scarcely almost not

The accidental discovery, just made, that the proprietor of the Temperance Tavern kept liquor on his premises, scarcely fluttered the public pulse, tremendous as the fact was.



concede admit (to a wrongdoing)

Joe was for being a hermit, and living on crusts in a remote cave, and dying, some time, of cold and want and grief; but after listening to Tom, he conceded that there were some conspicuous advantages about a life of crime, and so he consented to be a pirate.



disturb destroy the peace or tranquility of

Tom listened a moment, but no sound disturbed the quiet.


dauntless invulnerable to fear or intimidation

The Black Avenger stood still with folded arms, "looking his last" upon the scene of his former joys and his later sufferings, and wishing "she" could see him now, abroad on the wild sea, facing peril and death with dauntless heart, going to his doom with a grim smile on his lips.


avert turn away or aside

But they discovered the danger in time, and made shift to avert it.


considerable large or relatively large in number or amount or extent or degree

You see a pirate don't have to do anything, Joe, when he's ashore, but a hermit he has to be praying considerable, and then he don't have any fun, anyway, all by himself that way."

imminent close in time; about to occur

Then at once they reached and hovered upon the imminent verge of sleep -- but an intruder came, now, that would not "down."


obtrude thrust oneself in as if by force

Not a leaf stirred; not a sound obtruded upon great Nature's meditation.


solemn dignified and somber in manner or character and committed to keeping promises

They tramped gayly along, over decaying logs, through tangled underbrush, among solemn monarchs of the forest, hung from their crowns to the ground with a drooping regalia of grape-vines.


grandeur the quality of being magnificent or splendid or grand

They were jubilant with vanity over their new grandeur and the illustrious trouble they were making.


inestimable beyond calculation or measure

And he also put into the hat certain schoolboy treasures of almost inestimable value -- among them a lump of chalk, an India-rubber ball, three fishhooks, and one of that kind of marbles known as a "sure 'nough crystal."


sorrowful through loss or deprivation

Then with a mutual impulse the two bereaved women flung themselves into each other's arms and had a good, consoling cry, and then parted.

recount narrate or give a detailed account of

A sumptuous breakfast of bacon and fish was shortly provided, and as the boys set to work upon it, Tom recounted (and adorned) his adventures.


endure undergo or be subjected to

He was so homesick that he could hardly endure the misery of it.


miserable very unhappy; full of misery

Both boys were looking very pale and miserable, now.


fleeting lasting for a markedly brief time

Then a faint moan came sighing through the branches of the forest and the boys felt a fleeting breath upon their cheeks, and shuddered with the fancy that the Spirit of the Night had gone by.


(literary) a violent wind

The tempest rose higher and higher, and presently the sail tore loose from its fastenings and went winging away on the blast.

culminate reach the highest or most decisive point

The storm culminated in one matchless effort that seemed likely to tear the island to pieces, burn it up, drown it to the tree-tops, blow it away, and deafen every creature in it, all at one and the same moment.

muster gather or bring together

However, there was no other way; so with such show of cheerfulness as they could muster they called for the pipe and took their whiff as it passed, in due form.


pang a sudden sharp feeling

As the service proceeded, the clergyman drew such pictures of the graces, the winning ways, and the rare promise of the lost lads that every soul there, thinking he recognized these pictures, felt a pang in remembering that he had persistently blinded himself to them always before, and had as persistently seen only faults and flaws in the poor boys.


lavish very generous

And the loving attentions Aunt Polly lavished upon him were the one thing capable of making him more uncomfortable than he was before.

varying marked by diversity or difference

Tom got more cuffs and kisses that day -- according to Aunt Polly's varying moods -- than he had earned before in a year; and he hardly knew which expressed the most gratefulness to God and affection for himself.


swagger to walk with a lofty proud gait, often in an attempt to impress others

He did not go skipping and prancing, but moved with a dignified swagger as became a pirate who felt that the public eye was on him.


prattle speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly

Amy's happy prattle became intolerable.


pummel strike, usually with the fist

And he went through the motions of thrashing an imaginary boy -- pummelling the air, and kicking and gouging.


lethargy inactivity; showing an unusual lack of energy

Becky roused up from her lethargy of distress and showed good interest in the proceedings.

wrath intense anger (usually on an epic scale)

There was silence while one might count ten -- the master was gathering his wrath.

severe unsparing and uncompromising in discipline or judgment

The school-master, always severe, grew severer and more exacting than ever, for he wanted the school to make a good showing on "Examination" day.

moral concerned with principles of right and wrong or conforming to standards of behavior and character based on those principles

No matter what the subject might be, a brain-racking effort was made to squirm it into some aspect or other that the moral and religious mind could contemplate with edification.

tempestuous characterized by violent emotions or behavior

Dark and tempestuous was night.


boisterous full of rough and exuberant animal spirits

Even the boisterous winds unanimously came forth from their mystic homes, and blustered about as if to enhance by their aid the wildness of the scene



Social Studies

Key Idea: The Constitution in Practice





Text: America: History of our Nation- Chapter 8: Launching a New Nation and Chapter 9: The Era of Thomas Jefferson



7.5d Foreign and domestic disputes tested the strength of the Constitution, particularly the separation of powers, the system of checks and balances, and the issue of States rights. The United States sought to implement isolationism while protecting the Western Hemisphere from European interference.


Ø   Students will examine events of the early nation including Hamilton’s economic plan, the Louisiana Purchase, the Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison, and the War of 1812 in terms of testing the strength of the Constitution.

Ø   Students will examine the Monroe Doctrine and its impact on foreign policy.

Key Idea: Westward Expansion

(Standards: 1, 3; Themes: ID, MOV, TCC, GEO)

Text: America: History of our Nation- Chapter 10: A Changing Nation and Chapter 11: North and South Take Different Paths


7.6 WESTWARD EXPANSION: Driven by political and economic motives, the United States expanded its physical boundaries to the Pacific Ocean between 1800 and 1860. This settlement displaced Native Americans as the frontier was pushed westward.


(Standards: 1, 3; Themes: ID, MOV, TCC, GEO)




7.6a Conflict and compromise with foreign nations occurred regarding the physical expansion of the United States during the 19th century. American values and beliefs such as Manifest Destiny and the need for resources increased westward expansion and settlement.




Ø   Students will compare and evaluate the ways by which Florida, Texas, and territories from the Mexican


Cession were acquired by the United States.




7.6b Westward expansion provided opportunities for some groups while harming others.




Ø   Students will examine the Erie Canal as a gateway to westward expansion that resulted in economic growth for New York State, economic opportunities for Irish immigrants working on its construction, and its use by religious groups such as the Mormons to move westward.


Ø   Students will examine the growth of suffrage for white men under Andrew Jackson.


Ø   Students will examine the conditions faced on the Trail of Tears by the Cherokee and the impact the removal had on their people and culture.


Ø   Students will examine examples of Native American resistance to the western encroachment including the Seminole Wars and Cherokee judicial efforts.


Ø   Students will examine the ways in which westward movement had an impact on the lives of women and


African Americans.


Ø   Students will examine the policies of New York State toward Native Americans at this time.




Key Idea: Reform Movements

(Standards: 1, 5; Themes: SOC, CIV, GOV)

Text: America: History of Our Nation- Chapter 12: An Age of Reform


7.7 REFORM MOVEMENTS: Social, political, and economic inequalities sparked various reform movements and resistance efforts. Influenced by the Second Great Awakening, New York played a key role in major reform efforts.

(Standards: 1, 5; Themes: SOC, CIV, GOV)


7.7a The Second Great Awakening, which had a strong showing in New York, inspired reform movements.


Ø   Students will investigate examples of early 19th-century reform movements such as education, prisons, temperance, and mental health care, examining the circumstances that led to the need for reform.


7.7b Enslaved African Americans resisted slavery in various ways in the 19th century. The abolitionist movement also worked to raise awareness and generate resistance to the institution of slavery.


Ø   Students will examine ways in which enslaved Africans organized and resisted their conditions.

Ø   Students will explore efforts of William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Tubman to abolish slavery.

Ø   Students will examine the impact of Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the public perception of slavery.

Ø   Students will investigate New York State and its role in the abolition movement, including the locations of Underground Railroad stations.


7.7c Women joined the movements for abolition and temperance and organized to advocate for women’s property rights, fair wages, education, and political equality.


Ø   Students will examine efforts of women to acquire more rights, including Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth

Cady Stanton, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Susan B. Anthony.

Ø   Students will explain the significance of the Seneca Falls Convention and the Declaration of



7.7d The Anti-Rent movement in New York State was an attempt by tenant farmers to the protest the landownership system.

Ø   Students will trace the Anti-Rent movement in New York State.

Key Idea: A Nation Divided


7.8b As the nation expanded geographically, the question of slavery in new territories and states led to increased sectional tensions. Attempts at compromise ended in failure.


Ø   Students will examine attempts at resolving conflicts over whether new territories would permit slavery, including the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Ø   Students will examine growing sectional tensions including the decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford

(1857) and the founding of the Republican Party.


7.8c Perspectives on the causes of the Civil War varied based on geographic region, but the election of a Republican president was one of the immediate causes for the secession of the Southern states.


Ø   Students will examine both long- and short-term causes of the Civil War.

Ø   Students will identify which states seceded to form the Confederate States of America and will explore the reasons presented for secession. Students will also identify the states that remained in the Union.

Ø   Students will examine the role of New York State in the Civil War, including its contributions to the war effort and the controversy over the draft.

Key Idea: A Nation Divided




Text: America: History of our Nation


7.8d The course and outcome of the Civil War were influenced by strategic leaders from both the North and South, decisive battles, and military strategy and technology that utilized the region's geography.


Ø   Students will compare the advantages and disadvantages of the North and the South at the outset of the

Civil War.

Ø   Students will examine the goals and content of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.

Ø   Students will examine how the use of various technologies affected the conduct and outcome of the

Civil War.

Ø   Students will examine the enlistment of freed slaves and how it helped to change the course of the Civil


Ø   Students will examine the topography and geographic conditions at Gettysburg and Antietam, and analyze the military strategies employed by the North and the South at Gettysburg or Antietam.


7.8e The Civil War impacted human lives, physical infrastructure, economic capacity, and governance of the United



Ø   Students will examine the roles of women, civilians, and free African Americans during the Civil War.

Ø   Students will examine the aftermath of the war in terms of destruction, impact on population, and economic capacity by comparing impacts of the war on New York State and Georgia.

Ø   Students will explain how events of the Civil War led to the establishment of federal supremacy.


Mentor Texts


  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain is the primary text. Some selections are read aloud. The remainder of the book is planned to be read during class time. The number of pages assigned per lesson may vary. The schedule of reading is based on students, time constraints, and practices in assigning homework.
  • Excerpts from Mark Twain, A Biography: The Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens and My Autobiography by Mark Twain, are drawn from the online versions of the books. An audio documentary called “Mark Twain: A Biography of Mark Twain” can be found on YouTube (43 minutes).
  • Movie Tom Sawyer saved on computer.


  • A class set of: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is available online at: (1876 edition, American Publishing Company). An audio version can be found at Libri Vox: The Lexile level for The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is about 950L.
  • The Official Web Site of Mark Twain:
  • For websites for photographs, online versions of the other books/texts used in the unit, and other sources of information on Mark Twain and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, please see the “All Lessons” section of the Unit Resources as well as individual lessons.


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