Last updated: 6/21/2016

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Science TCSD Pacing Guide - Earth Science September

Grade 8 Earth Science

General Science Skills, Scientific Method, and Observation

Observation versus Inference

What is the Scientific Method?

Mathematical Skills

Measuring Skills

Determining Volume

Determining Density

Graphing Skills

Calculating Rate of Change


Methods of Heat Transfer

Conduction, Convection and Radiation

Absorption and Radiation of Energy

Measuring the Earth

How do We determine Earth's Circumference?

What is Earth's Shape?

Pinpointing Locations on Earth

Latitude and Longitude

What are Isolines?

Constructing a Field Map

Constructing a Contour Map

Topographic Map Exercises

Calculating Gradient

Measuring Distances

Determining Direction of River Flow

Determining Structure of Landforms

Constructing a Profile



Minerals and Rocks

What are Minerals?

Classification of Earth Materials

Properties of Minerals

What is Color?  Streak?

What is Luster?

What are Fracture and Cleavage?

What are Crystals?

Crystal Characteristics and Formation

What is Hardness?

What is a Rock?

Deterining Rock Types and Characteristics

Igneous Rock Identification

Sedimentary Rock Identifiation

Metamorphic Rock Identification

What is the Rock Cycle?

The Dynamic Crust

What is the Structure of the Earth?

Patterns of Crustal Activity

What is Continental Drift?

Types of Crustal Boundaries

Dynamics of Divergent, Convergent, and Transform Boundaries

What is Sea Floor Spreading?

Evidence of Sea Floor Spreading

Origin of the Hawaiian Islands

What are Earthquakes?

Measuring Earthquakes

Finding Epicenters of Earthquakes

What are the Properties of the Earth's Interior?


Surface Processes and Landscapes

Ground Water and the Water Cycle

What is the Water Cycle?

What is Stream Abrasion?

What are sediments?

What are Erosion and Deposition?

Deposition of Sediments

Models of Erosional-Depositional Systems

Erosion and Deposition by Glaciers

Landscapes Of NY State

Interpreting Landscapes Using Maps


Surface Water, Oceans and Glaciers

What are Oceans?

Characteristics of Oceans

What is Salinity?

What are Waves?

Properties of Ocean Waves

What are Ocean Currents?

Types of Ocean Currents: Surface Currents, Density Currents, Turbidity Currents

Coastal Properties

What are Glaciers?

Erosion and Deposition by Glaciers

Alpine and Continental Glaciers



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