The Principle of Uniformitarianism
Sequence of Geologic Events
Relative Age versus Absolute Age
Chronology of Layers
What are the Major Principles Used to Interpret Geologic History?
Principle of Original Horizontality
Principle of Superposition
Evidence of Events
Intrusions and Extrusions
What are Faults? Joints? Folds?
Cracks, Veins, and Mineral Cement
Continuity of Rocks
What is Bedrock?
What is and Outcrop?
What is Meant by "Walking an Outcrop?"
Fossil Evidence in Rocks:
What are Index Fossils and How are they Used?
Volcanic Time Markers in Rocks:
What are Volcanic Time Markers?
How are Volcanic Time Markers Used?
What are Geologic Anomalies?
How Do We Determine Geologic Ages?
The Geologic Time Scale:
What are Eons, Eras, Periods, and Epochs?
What are the 4 Major Geologic Time Divisions?
Precambrian, Paleozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Cenozoic Era
Characteristics of the Erosional Record
What are Unconformities and How are they Formed?
Uplift, Erosion, Submergence, and Deposition
The 3 Most Common Unconformities
Angular Unconformities, Parallel Unconformities, Nonconformities
What is Radioactive Decay?
What is Half-Life?
How is Half-Life Calculated and Used?
History and Evolution of the Earth's Atmosphere
Outgassing and the Fossil Record
Weather: Changes in Our Atmosphere
Why Do We Need to Know About Weather?
What is the Atmosphere?
Layers of the Atmosphere:
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere
What is Weather?
What is Meteorology?
Electromagnetic Energy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum:
Properties of Waves
Crest, Trough, Wavelength, and Frequency
Interaction of Matter and Electromagnetic Energy:
Refraction, Reflection, Scattering
The Doppler Effect
What are Red Shift and Blue Shift; How are these used?
The Earth's Energy Budget
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere:
Conduction, Convection and Radiation
Energy Transformation in the Atmosphere:
Closed Energy System vs Open
Energy Source and Energy Sink
Heat versus Temperature
Calories, Specific Heat and Latent Heat
What Variables Effect the State of the Atmosphere?
Effects of Temperature
What is Insolation?
Factors Effecting Local Temperature
Effects of Latitude, Altitude, Closeness to Large Bodies of Water, Amout of Moisture in the Air
Effects of Humidity
What is Capacity? Saturation?
What is Relative Humidity?
Calculating Relative Humidity?
Effects on Relative Humidity of Warm and Cold Air
What is a Psychrometer?
What is Dew Point?
Effects of Atmospheric Pressure
Moisture and Air Pressure
High and Low Pressure Systems
Altitude and Air Pressure
Moisture and Energy Input
Evaporation, Transpiration and Evapotranspiration
Factors Effecting the Rate of Evaporation
Vapor Pressure, Energy, Surface Area, Moisture
What is Dynamic Equilibrium?
What is Saturation Vapor Pressure?
The Hydrologic Cycle
Effects of Wind Speed and Wind Direction
Effects of Clouds and Precipitation
Cloud Formation, Cloud Classification and Cloud Types
Forms of Precipitation
What are the Differences between Rain, Drizzle, Sleet, Snow, Hail, Dew and Frost?
Moisture and Energy Transfer: The Adiabatic Lapse Rate
What Causes Changes in the Weather?
Air Masses and Air Movement
What is an Air Mass?
Air Mass Characteristics
Air Mass Source Regions
Air Movement: Winds, Breezes and Currents
Cause of Winds, Local Breezes (Land vs Sea Breezes)
Zones of Divergence and Convergence
Planetary Winds and the Planetary Wind System
What are Jet Streams?
What is a Weather Front?
Tyes of Weather Fronts: Warm, Cold, Stationary, Occluded
Severe Weather and Climate
Types of Severe Weather?
Thunderstorms and How They Form
Tornadoes and How and Where They Form
Hurricanes and How and Where They Form
Hurricane Tracking, Categories, and Damage
Floods and Droughts
What are Blizzards?
Fog and Ice Storms
What is Climate?
Climate versus Weather, and Global Climate
Effects of the Water Cycle on Climate
Effects of Latitude on Moisture Exchange
Belts of Surplus and Deficit
Effects of Insolation on Climate
Intensity and Area
Factors Affecting Insolation:
Angle, Type of Surface, Length of Time, Atmospheric Conditions
Latitude and Intensity of Insolation
Seasons of the Earth
Causes of the Change of Seasons
Length of Day / Duration of Insolation
What is Radiative Balance?
Maximum and Minimum Temperatures: Daily and Yearly
Earth's Energy Budgets
Earth in Space
What is Astronomy?
How are Distances Measured in Space?
Astronomical Unit/Light Year
What is a Galaxy?
Types of Galaxies: Elliptical, Irregular, Spiral, Barred Spirals
The Milky Way Galaxy
What are Clusters?
What is our Sun?
Characteristics and Layers of the Sun
What are Solar Flares, Prominences, Sunspots?
What is the Solar System?
Formation of the Solar System
What are Planets? Classification of Planets: Terrestrial and Jovian
The Earth's Moon
The Kuiper Belt
Other Objects in the Solar System:
Comets, Asteriods and Meteoroids
What are Impact Events, and Effects of Impact Events?
Origin and Fate of the Universe
Principles and Evidence of Hubble's Law
What are Spectra?
Principles of the Doppler Effect
Deep Space Phenomena
What are Stars?
How do Stars Form?
Types of Stars
Characteristics and Classification of Stars:
Temperature, Color, Luminosity/Brightness (Actual vs Apparent)
Main Sequence Stars and Using the Hertzsprung Russel Diagram
Life Cycle of Stars
Supernova and Black Holes
The Celestial Sphere and Locating Objects in Space:
Horizon, Zenith, Altitude, Azimuth
Star Paths and Circumpolar Stars
Rotation vs Revolution
Orbits and Eccentricity
What are Constellations?
Geocentric vs Heliocentric Models
Orbital Forces and Kepler's Laws
Perihelion vs Aphelion and Affects to Orbital Speeds
Evidence of Earth's Rotation
Foucault Pendulum, Coriolis Effect, Other Evidence
Apparent Motions of the Sun
Time and Earth Motions:
Causes and Dynamics of the Change of Seasons
What is Insolation?
Why Does the Length of Day on Earth Change?
Sidereal Day vs Apparent Solar Day
Motions of the Moon:
Sidereal Month vs Synodic Month
Phases of the Moon
What are Eclipses? Types of Eclipses
Solar Eclipse Characteristics
Lunar Eclipse Characteristics
Interdependence of Earth's Living and Non-Lliving Systems
Problems Associated with Air Pollution:
Types of Water Pollutants
Global Warming Facts and Concerns
NYS Regents: Skills and Topics Review