Last updated: 6/7/2016

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Curriculum Map: 2nd Grade March-April

Subject/Grade Level/Unit Title:

Subject: Cross Curricula

Grade Level: Second Grade

Unit Title: Units of Study

Timeframe Needed for Completion/Grading Period:

March, April


Big Idea/Themes/Understandings:

Big Idea/Themes: Fundations, Spelling, Westward Expansion, Insects, U.S Civil War, Narrative/Informative/Opinion Writing, Vocabulary, Grammar, Balance & Motion, Numbers and Operations in Base Ten, Measurement and Data

Understanding: Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York.  Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.  Numbers and number sense.

Essential Questions: Social Studies
  • What was a pioneer family's westward journey like?
  • What was a family's life like on the frontier?
  • What is the significance of the steamboat?
  • Who is Robert Fulton?
  • What were the means of travel that increased the movement of people west?
  • What was the importance of canals?
  • What was the most famous canal built during the Canal Era?
  • What was the significance of Sequoyah's invention of the Cherokee writing system?
  • Why was writing important to Sequoyah and the Cherokee?
  • What was the Cherokee writing system?
  • Why did the U.S. government force the Native Americans from their lands?
  • What was the Trail of Tears?
  • What was the Oregon Trail?
  • What was the Pony Express?
  • What was the Transcontinental Railroad?
  • What was the nickname given to the first train in America?
  • What were the advantages of rail travel?
  • What is slavery?
  • What is the controversy over slavery?
  • What contributions did the enslaved African Americans make to the success of plantations in the south?
  • What were the contributions of Harriet Tubman and what was her life like?
  • What was the Underground Railroad?
  • What is the difference between the North and South?
  • What were the adult life and contributions of Abraham Lincoln?
  • What is the difference between the Union and the Confederacy and the states associated with each?
  • Why did the southern states secede from the United States?
  • What were the differences between the North and the South that caused the U.S. Civil War?
  • Who were the Yankees and the Rebels?
  • What are the differences between the Union and the Confederacy?
  • What was Abraham Lincoln's role in keeping the Union together during the U.S. Civil War?
  • Who was Robert E. Lee?
  • Why was Lee reluctant to command either the Union or the Confederate Army?
  • Who was Clara Barton?
  • What is the job of the American Red Cross?
  • Who wrote the Emancipation Proclamation?
  • What is the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation?
  • Who is Ulysses S. Grant?
  • How did the North's victory reunite the North and the South and end slavery?



Essential Questions: Science
  • How can counterweights help balance shapes in stable positions?
  • How can spinning motion be changed?
  • How can a wheel-and-axle system be changed?
  • What causes sound?
  • How do sounds differ?
  • What happens when magnets come close together?
  • What are the characteristics of an insect?
  • What are the four distinct stages of development of an insect?
  • What is the difference between spiders and insects?
  • What are the roles of honeybee workers, drones, and queens?
  • What are the roles of worker ants, males, and queens?
  • What is the social behavior of ants and ant colonies?


Essential Questions: Language Arts

Unit 4, Series Book Clubs

Bend I: Becoming Experts on Characters

How can series book readers...

  • collect information about the main characters?
  • pay attention to how characters respond to problems?
  • notice similarities in their characters across a series?
  • grow to understand the characters?
  • use what they know about the characters to predict?
  • learn about characters from their relationships with other characters?Bend II: Becoming Experts on Author's CraftHow do authors...
  • paint pictures with words?
  • use precise words?
  • use literary language to make the ordinary extraordinary?
  • think about how whole stories and series will go?
  • have ways to bring stories to life?
  • plan their story endings?Bend III: Sharing Opinions With the WorldHow can readers...
  • love a series?
  • plan the very best way to share a book?
  • share books they love with friends?
  • share opinions by debating?
  • support reasons with examples to strengthen debate work?








Essential Questions: Mathematics

Topic 10 Place Value to 1,000

  • How many ones make a ten, how many tens make a hundred, and how many hundreds make a thousand?
  • How can a number be shown using hundreds, tens, and ones place value models?
  • How do the digits of a number up to 4 digits long show the value of the number?
  • How does a three digit number change when it is increased or decreased by a multiple of 10 or 100?
  • How can you use place value to find and describe patterns?
  • How can a number line be used to skip count?
  • How does understanding place value help you compare three-digit numbers?
  • How is ordering three numbers similar to comparing two numbers?
  • How can finding number patterns help solve problems?

Topic 11 Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction

  • What strategies can you use to add three-digit numbers?
  • How can you use mental math to add multiples of 100 to a three-digit number?
  • How can you model and record adding 2 three-digit numbers?
  • How do you add 2 three-digit numbers using paper and pencil?
  • What strategies can you use to subtract three-digit numbers?
  • How can you count on or count back to find a missing part?
  • How can you regroup a hundred when you need to subtract more tens than are present in the tens place?
  • How do you subtract 2 three-digit numbrs using paper and pencil?
  • How can you use logial reasoning to help solve problems?

Topic 13 Counting Money

  • How can you find the value of a group of half-dollars, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies?
  • How can you find the values of a set of mixed coins?
  • How do you show 100 cents , or 1 dollar , with different groups of coins?
  • How do you count combinations of money that include both bills and coins?
  • How can an organized list show the different ways to make the same amount of money?

Topic 14 Money

  • How is adding money amounts in cents similar to adding money amounts in cents similar to adding tens and ones?
  • How is subtracting money amounts in cents similar to subtracting tens and ones?
  • How can you estimate a two digit sum and difference?
  • How can trying a method, checking the results, revising as necessary be used to solve problems?




Social Studies:

A community is a population of various individuals in a common location. It can be characterized as urban, suburban, or rural. Population density and use of the land are some characteristics that define and distinguish types of communities.

People share similarities and differences with others in their own community and with other communities.

The United States is founded on the principles of democracy, and these principles are reflected in all types of communities.

Communities have rules and laws that affect how they function. Citizens contribute to a community’s government through leadership and service.

Geography and natural resources shape where and how urban, suburban, and rural communities develop and how they sustain themselves.

Identifying continuities and changes over time can help understand historical developments.

Cause-and-effect relationships help us recount events and understand historical development.

Communities face different challenges in meeting their needs and wants.

A community requires the interdependence of many people performing a variety of jobs and services to provide basic needs and wants.

Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York.

The study of New York State and United States history requires an analysis of the development of American culture, its diversity and multicultural context, and the ways people are unified by many values, practices, and traditions.

Students know the roots of American culture, its development from many different traditions, and the ways many people from a variety of groups and backgrounds played a role in creating it.

Students explain those values, practices, and traditions that unite all Americans.

Important ideas, social and cultural values, beliefs, and traditions from New York State and United States history illustrate the connections and interactions of people and events across time and from a variety of perspectives.

Students gather and organize information about the traditions transmitted by various groups living in their neighborhood and communities.

Students recognize how traditions and practices were passed from one generation to the next.

Students distinguish between near and distant past and interpret simple timelines.

Study about how the major social, political, economic, cultural, and religious developments in New York State and United States history involves learning about the important roles and contributions of individuals and groups.

Students gather and organize information about the important accomplishments of individuals and groups, including Native American Indians, living in their neighborhoods and communities.

Students classify information by type of activity; social, political, economic, technological, scientific, cultural, or religious.

Students identify individuals who have helped to strengthen democracy in the United States and throughout the world.

The skills of historical analysis include the ability to: explain the significance of historical evidence; weigh the importance, reliability, and validity of evidence; understand the concept of multiple causation; understand the importance of changing and competing interpretations of different historical developments.

Students consider different interpretations of key events and/or issues in history and understand the differences in these accounts.

Students explore different experiences, beliefs, motives, and traditions of people living in their neighborhoods, communities, and state.

Students view historic events through the eyes of those who were there, as shown in their art, writings, music, and artifacts.


Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate technologies.

Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

Students will apply technological knowledge and skills to design, construct, use, and evaluate products and systems to satisfy human and environmental needs.

Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions.

Language Arts: Reading

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.

Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.

Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.

Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Make connections between self, text, and the world around them (text, media, social interaction).

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.

Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.

Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.

Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.

Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Language Arts: Writing

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.

Write narratives in which they recount a well elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

Create and present a poem, narrative, play, art work, or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class, with support as needed.

Language Arts: Speaking and Listening

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

Build on others' talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.

Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.

Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds.

Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.

Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

Language Arts: Language

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Use collective nouns (e.g., group).

Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).

Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).

Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).

Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.

Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.

Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.

Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.

Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage badge; boy boil).

Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).

Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).

Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).

Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.

Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).

Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

Mathematics: Counting and Cardinality
There are no standards currently aligned to this resource.
Mathematics: Operations and Algebraic Thinking
There are no standards currently aligned to this resource.
Mathematics: Number and Operations and Base Ten

Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:

100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens - called a "hundred."

The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones).

Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s.

Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds.

Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100-900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100-900.

Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.

Mathematics: Measurement and Data

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have?

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

Mathematics: Geometry
There are no standards currently aligned to this resource.
Essential Skills and Vocabulary:



Essential Skills:

Unit 12:

  • Teach sounds of oi and oy
  • Teach spelling generalizations of /oi/ sound

Unit 13:

  • Teach the long sound of oa, oe and  ow
  • Teach the use of spelling option procedure for /o/ sound
  • Teach review of suffix endings

Unit 14:

  • Teach the /ou/ sound of ou and ow
  • Teach flexibility in sound choices for reading
  • Teach spelling generalizations of /ou/ sound

Unit 15:

Teach the /u/ sound of oo, ou, ue, and ew

Teach the /u/ sound of ue

Teach the /u/ sound of oo

Teach the use of spelling of option procedures for /u/ and /u/ sounds

Fundations Unit Spelling Words

Week 21: brain, faint, grain, remain, subway, runway, delay, raindrop, birthday, waist

Week 22: sheet, queen, treat, cheap, teacher, feast, heat, team, leaf, sweep

Week 23: chimney, complete, hockey, breakfast, ready, read, cheek, bleed, wheel, beak

Week 24: coin, soil, boil, spoil, destroy, favorite, early, ocean, join, moist

Week 25: boat, snow, Monday, Tuesday, cousin, grown, show, float, coach, toe

Week 26: follow, lose, tomorrow, beautiful, coast, below, flow, foam, explode, storm

Week 27: brown, flower, tower, shower, crowd, rowdy, Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday, loud

Week 28: cloud, drown, outline, sound, found, ground, brought, hound, pound, piece

Week 29: January, February, July, chew, group, hook, spook, booth, smooth, rescue

Week 30: enough, special, December, bloom, foolish, umpire, argue, continue, crew, shampoo 

Vocabulary Skills:

  • Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings
  • Develop vocabulary through listening skills.

Vocabulary Unit Words:

Lesson 21: demand, crimson, caravan, hearty, impatient, nourish, tradition

Lesson 22: peek, treasure, glisten, dangle, descend, fortunate, remedy

Lesson 23: insist, precious, impressed, regret, calamity, heroic, redeem

Lesson 24: magnificent, inquisitive, protest, plunge, futile, marooned, collaborate

Assessment Tasks:
  • Observation
  • Projects
  • Formative
  • Cumulative


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