|Subject/Grade Level/Unit Title||Timeframe/Grading Period||Big Idea/Themes/Understandings||Essential Questions||Standards||Essential Skills||Vocabulary||Assessment Tasks||Resources|
This curriculum map may differ from actual content in the classroom based on many factors. May/June
Youth: Ah, youth! A time for fun and games and puppy love. Well, sort of. Over the years, Tom Sawyer has become shorthand for a mischievous, carefree boy. And he is, for the most part. That said, you can't forget that, no matter what audience Twain is writing for, he's looking back on his own childhood. Tom may be a kid, he may have a kid's feelings, and a kid's way of looking at the world, but, well, kids can be strange. And remember: Twain's all mixed up in there too, calling the shots, and giving the colorful commentary.
Hopes, plans, and dreams: Here's the thing: Tom's got so many hopes, plans, and dreams that it's hard to know where to start. He's got all your usual boyish notions about being a robber or a pirate. He, like so many other kids, wants to find buried treasure. Why should we care about his dreams if they're so ordinary? Well, that's the point, really. In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, we're supposed to identify with Tom and his desires. We're supposed to rejoice when they're met and be disappointed when they're not. And when his dreams they're just plain silly and confused? Well, then we're just supposed to laugh.
Visions of America: Tom Sawyer's America is, more than anything else, small. All he really knows is St. Petersburg, Missouri. And for him, for Twain and for us, that's fine. In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, America is in the details, in the way the townspeople talk, in the look of things. When America shows up – as it does, in the person of a senator – it's met with disappointment. Not because there's anything wrong with it, really, but because, for Tom, it's not as incredibly grand and fantastic as he thought it would be.
Maniputlation: Without manipulation, there wouldn't really be many adventures of Tom Sawyer to speak of. If Tom couldn't coerce his friends into joining him on kooky adventures, they would never have happened. And if Injun Joe weren't so cunning, well, he wouldn't be much of a villain. By allowing these two manipulators to co-exist, Twain muddies the waters a bit. It's a lot of fun watching Tom dupe unsuspecting fools, but as a result we have to ask ourselves: are we being duped? Tom may always be the good guy, but he's not the "model boy," and his motives aren't always clear. (To learn more about the similarities and differences between Tom and Injun Joe's trickery, check out "Character Roles.")
Twain's main purpose is to capture (and remind us of) the complex emotional and social wold of a boy on the edge of adolescence. While reading students will pay attention to how Tom deals with the following issues:
Notice how Tom matures throughtout the novel. It is important to note that the first words Tom speaks are a lie. As he develops, pay attnetion ot how he deals with telling the truth versus lying.
2) Tom's world is a well-preserved snapsho of the life and times of a youth in the years before the Civil War. Notice how the follwing issues relate to this time period:
3) Tom's relationship with Becky Thatcher is particularly difficult for both of them as they try to learn the best way to understand their feelings for each other. As their relationship progresses, pay attention to the following:
4) Huck Finn acts as a foil for Tom, contrasting the differences in their lifestyles and what they would like to become. Not their differneces:
5) Notice how Twain critiizes and various elements in Tom's wold in the following ways:
6) Tom has a vivid imagination, whihc he uses with great effect thfoughtout the novel. Pay particular attention to how Tom;s imagination impacts the following:
While Tom uses his imagination extensively, there are circumstances that force him to face reality. Be aware fo the fololowing forces:
7) Difficult or unusual vocabulary words.
1) What does it mean to grow up?
3) What is a challenge?
4) How do writers use figurative language to convey feelings and ideas?
5) How can we use our creativity to face challenges?
Differentiating between literal and figurative language
Identifying types of figurative language
Memorization strategies: repetition, writing, recording/listening
Speaking in front of a group.
Identifying and summarizing theme
Citing textural evidence
Drawing inferences using textural evidence
Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words using context clues
adamantine- like a diamond
diplomacy- being sensitive with others
in high feather- upset;over-reacting
kindlings- items used to start fire
vulgar- crude; common people
alacrity- moving or responding with great speed and tnthusiasm
melancholoy-deep sadness, usually lastine a long time
personating-impersonating; pretending to be something you are not
starboard- the front, right side of a ship
vigor- with energy
audacious- bold; adventurous
dismal felicity- tom is enjoying feeling sorry for himself
ecstasies- intense emotions
eminence- person of high rank
evanescent- lasting only a brief time
omission- something omitted; meglection
patiality- having a perference for
audacious- bold; adventurous
Barlowknife- a pocketknife or jack knife
lickerish-licorice a kind of candy
scarcity- a lack of somethinf desirable
benediction- a blessing
despotisms- absolute authorities
ferule- a rod or pointer that can be used for punishment
gantlet-lines of people
hogshead- a large barrel
laggards-those who stray behind
supplication- to request
expectorate- to spit
pariah-an outcast; isolated from society
spunki water-a superstitious remedy for warrts
traversed- moved across or through
caitiff-a coward; despicable
cogitating- thinking carefully
incantations- magic spells
nettle- a stinging weed; antying that irritates
caterwauling- crying out like an angry cat
incantations- magic spells
jingoes-an expression of surprise
red keel-a chalk-like substance used to mark lumber
verdigrease-verdigris- a greenish coating that sppears on old copper or bronze
balefully-full of menace
branch-a small stream that flows into a larger one
vogue-current fashion; popular
imminent-about to occur
rendezvous-an arranged meeting
succumb-to give in
vestibule- small entranceway
vicinity-in close range
conned- thought about
imminence-about to occur
lethargy-feeling extreme laziness
trounce- to beat
ferule-an object used to strike children
convalescent-return to health
serape-a blanket-like shawl
sombrero- a large hat made from straw or felt
spade- a tool used to dig
gunwale-the upper edge of a vessel's side
thimblefuls-small amounts- (thimble- a metal cover that protects the thumb during sewing)
agues- uncontrollable shivering, usually associated with disease
bowlder (boulder) a large rock
chasms- deep openings in the ground; a gorge
rollicking-having actibe noisy fun
sixpence-a small sum of money (British)
stile- a ladder like structure attached to fences so people can cross
sumac- a plant that causes rashes and skin irritation
swag- loot; things that have been stolen
tallow- melted candle wax
wharf- a pier; a landing place for ships.
anatomy- body structure
canvassed- examined; studied; reported
embellishment- adding details to make the story more interesting or dramatic
Hairtrigger-a gun that required very little pressure on the trigger
powwow- a meeting to discuss something important
vagabond-one who waders from place to place with no particular goal
vicinity nearby; proximity
apathy-lack of interest or concern
frescoed- painted with plaster
stalactites- rocks formed in caves by dripping water
Prompts for Blogging:
Classic Blog Post
- Your original idea
- Evidence from the book to support your idea (Remember: " " around text, page number in parenthesis)
- Explanation of your evidence
- HOW does the evidence support your idea?
- This quote shows......because....
- Breakdown and look deeper at (ANALYZE) the evidence
- An open-ended question (cannot be answered with yes or no) that the class can work on answering
- You do NOT need to know the answer to the question.
Background Knowledge: Mark Twain Webquest
You will need to pick up a Webquest Packet in the classroom to complete this activity. Please write your answers on the packet.
Page 1) Please click on the following website to read a short biography on Mark Twain. Biography Pages 2-3) You will click on the following link to tour the Mark Twain House in Hartford Connecticut. Mark Twain House Please click on the tab that says "The House" in order to see the house and answer questions. If the virtual tour gives you trouble, click on "Rooms in the House" and scroll down.
Page 4) Click on the following link to look at Mark Twain's family tree. Family Tree
Page 4 cont) Look at the map of Hannibal and trace the path of the Mississippi river through the state. Then Check out river boats. Read about the kinds of boats the floated down the Mississippi. Answer the questions on the page. To look for boats that might have passed Hannibal, click on steamboat pictures then select the individual boats.
Page 5) Visit The Mark Twain Museum to see Becky Thatcher's house, and learn more about Hannibal, Missouri.
Page 6) Caves play a large role in the final sections of Tom Sawyer. Explore a virtual cave here and see just what's inside the rocks. Check out Bridal Cave Kids'Page to see how rocks grow and what caves are made of.
Qualities of Classic Books
Mark Twain defined a classic as, "Something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read." What characterizes a classic work of fiction? Is a book a classic when it has a great number of printings? Or is it the number of languages into which it has been translated? Is it called a classic because some distinguished soul said it is a classic? While these are interesting, even significant, they do not determine that a fiction book is a classic.
First, a classic is timely. It either expresses or influences the times in which it was written. Uncle Tom's Cabin opened the eyes of America to the dark side of slavery. Oliver Twist revealed the difficult lives of the homeless children in England. Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, though not fiction, revealed the realities of the Holocaust and what it was like to hide from the Nazis during their occupation of Netherlands. A classic is not only timely but also timeless. Classics deal with themes that touch all periods of history, all societies, and all cultures. Some such themes include good versus evil and the consequences of both, love and forgiveness, success against all odds, personal values (for example, Beauty and the Beast proclaims that the exterior is not what really counts), et. al. Many classics show the value of resisting temptation to compromise in order to reach the goal. In most, if not all classics, the hero overcomes one or more major obstacles at the climax of the story so that his ultimate goal is reached and success achieved. Real classics present truth. Any author can develop a story so that evil appears inevitable, lying pays off, hate and revenge are good. Though this may indeed seem to depict real life, it is really just pseudo-reality. A classic will still be around years after it first appeared. It may or may not get good reviews at first, but a classic work still be recognized for its literary value long after it is first published. "Some books are undeservedly forgotten; none are undeservedly remembered" W.H. Auden said. Shakespeare's writing is certainly classic in this sense. In this sense, then, a true classic must have been around for a while. A classic is readable in its style. Mark Twain said, "Great books are weighed and measured by their style and manner and not by the trimmings and shadings of their grammar." However, that does not mean they are poorly written so that they are difficult to read. Variety is possible, from the ornate language of The Yearling to the plain language of The Good Earth. The story in a classic almost tells itself, though not without surprises. The characters are believable even in their depth. This is exemplified in Hamlet. The author does not tell you how to feel or what conclusions to draw. Instead, he or she makes you feel or conclude what they want. The story does not preach a moral, but illustrates a moral so that the message is clear, though hidden. A classic connects authors and times. You can study a classic and discover influences from other writers and other great works of literature. At once a classic both expresses the period and style and struggles of the time, and uniquely stands on its own. In conclusion, what are your favorite fiction books? Do your favorites measure up to being real classics? Do you think other traits besides these mark a book as a classic? If you own a true classic book, how are you preserving it so that others in the future can also enjoy it?
Fence Painting Persuasive Writing
In chapter 2, Tom uses his persuasive ability to convince others to paint the white picket fence for him. Think about a chore you might be asked to do and write a persuasive letter to a friend or relative where you convince them to do the chore for you. Make sure to use persuasive techniques and explain why that person "should" be doing the chore for you.
The language in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is very unique. In addition to using antiquated terminology, the novel is also written using a Southern dialect. A dialect is form of language that is unique to a specific region or social group.
Growing Up Poems - SIFTT
Many themes from Tom Sawyer relate to the concept of "growing up." Your task is perform a SIFTT analysis of the two poems listed below. Focus on their connection to "growing up" whenever possible.
Write down each keyword and answer the questions (you must do this process twice, once for each poem).
Symbols – What significant symbols are in the title? What important symbols are in the poem? Why do you think the poet included these objects? What do they represent?
Imagery – What is the author trying to get you to feel, smell, taste, hear, and see? What phrases and/or words stand out to you? Why?
Figurative Language – What similes, metaphors, or personification examples stand out to you in this poem? Why?
Tone – What is the tone of this piece? (What do you think the poet’s attitude was when writing this poem?)
Theme – What is the life lesson of this poem? What is the poet trying to teach us? Explain.
1) Nature's Green Is Gold by Robert Frost
Nature’s first green is gold,
Her hardest hue to hold.
Her early leaf’s a flower;
But only so an hour.
Then leaf subsides to leaf.
So Eden sank to grief,
So dawn goes down to day.
Nothing gold can stay.
2) If by Rudyard Kipling
If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too:
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or, being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or being hated don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise;
If you can dream---and not make dreams your master;
If you can think---and not make thoughts your aim,
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same:.
If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build'em up with worn-out tools;
If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings,
And never breathe a word about your loss:
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: "Hold on!"
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings---nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much: If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it, And---which is more---you'll be a Man, my son!
Projects for end of novel
Tom Sawyer-by Mark Twain
engageny,org reading list
Here is a copy of the book on tape: https://americanenglish.state.gov/files/ae/resource_files/tom-sawyer_0.mp3
Resources for online Tom Sawyer